Innovation and Technology


Mare’s Hoof Flame Kiln Masonry


The construction of a glass melting furnace must be carried out according to the design. The materials for the construction project must be selected according to the design requirements and the current material standards. Construction of the glass melting furnace should only proceed after thorough inspection, approval, and the signing of a process handover certificate for the furnace foundation, kiln body framework structure, and related equipment installation.

The process handover certificate should include the following content: measurement records of the furnace centerline and control elevation; acceptance records for concealed works; re-measurement records of the main dimensions of steel structure installation; quality inspection records for anchor bolts, welded components, and other related items.

The following areas of the glass melting furnace should be dry masonry: the pool bottom, pool walls, lower gap bricks, upper structures built with fused cast bricks, grid bricks in the regenerator, and other areas specified for dry masonry in the design. Other areas should be wet masonry.

Except for designated expansion joints or the addition of fillers in the design, dry-masonry structures should have bricks tightly abutting each other without the use of fillers. Depending on the construction requirements, the refractory bricks for dry-masonry areas should be selected, processed, and pre-masoned.

The brick joint thickness of various parts of the glass melting furnace should not exceed the values specified in Table 6-6.

Masonry of Melting and Cooling Sections

① The masonry of the pool bottom should proceed from each respective centerline towards both sides. When masonry of the melting and cooling sections’ pool bottoms is conducted, the position of the flat steel should be adjusted simultaneously. The brick joints of the pool bottom structure should be vertical and horizontal, except for specifically designated areas. Expansion joints should be left at brick joints, and measures such as using adhesive tape should be taken to prevent debris from entering. The upper surface of the pool bottom should be leveled during the masonry of the pool walls. When building the pool walls, the outer edge of the pool bottom bricks should not be within the outer edge of the pool wall bricks. For kiln bottoms with insulation layers, the rammed layer should be carefully compacted before laying surface bricks. If there is no rammed layer and surface brick layer on the bottom bricks, measures should be taken to prevent the bottom bricks from floating. The pool bottom bricks and surface bricks in the melting and cooling sections should have expansion joints as per the design requirements and should prevent debris from entering.

② For the masonry of the pool walls, heavy bricks and high-quality fused cast bricks should be used for high-temperature and erosion-prone areas of the melting section, feed opening, flow channel, and material inlet of the cooling section. The corners of the pool walls should not be staggered during masonry. Unless specified otherwise in the design, a straight joint should be constructed along the longer pool wall.

③ For the masonry of breast walls and kiln piers, temporary fixing measures should be taken for the columns. While building the kiln pier foot bricks, the support steel should be adjusted, and no bricks or refractory mortar should be used to level irregularities between the kiln pier foot bricks and supporting steel parts, or between the supporting steel parts and the columns. Expansion joints should be left at the joints of kiln piers in the melting and cooling sections. When there is a supporting pier in the kiln pier, a straight joint should be constructed from the foot of the supporting pier to the leveling brick at the top of the pier, and no expansion joint should be left. Every fifth row of kiln pier bricks should be checked using a faceplate. At the ends of each section of kiln pier in the melting and cooling sections, no brick with a width less than 150mm should be used for masonry. The bottom surface of the hook bricks should be wet-masoned, and the top surface should be leveled. A 5mm gap should be retained between the inner curved surface of the hook brick and the supporting plate. The expansion joints between hook bricks should be sealed with adhesive tape to prevent debris from entering. Gaps between upper gap bricks and kiln piers should be filled with refractory mortar suitable for the masonry. When masonry is carried out between hook bricks and breast walls, measures should be taken to prevent leaning into the kiln. The distance and elevation of kiln pier foot bricks from the centerline of the melting furnace must conform to the design dimensions. In the masonry of kiln piers in the melting section, the locking bricks of all kiln piers on each side should be installed simultaneously. From the moment of inserting the locking bricks until dismantling the kiln pier mold, temporary tightening measures should be taken at the foot of the first and last piers on the same side of each supporting pier. After the completion of masonry in the melting and cooling sections, gradually and evenly tighten the nuts on the tie rods between each pair of columns to gradually lift the kiln pier. This is done to check the synchronicity of the rise in the middle and on both sides of the kiln pier. Each time the nuts are tightened, the height of the rise on both sides should be checked to determine whether adjustments are needed according to the design requirements. During inspection, a 2m precision level should be used to measure the surfaces of the kiln pier and the opposing column surfaces. Deviations of each column should also be measured, and the difference should not exceed the allowable value in the design to determine whether the tightening of the nuts on the tie rods between the columns is reasonable.

④ The construction of the kiln roof should be done in one go during a single material loading. During construction, the gaps between bricks should be uniformly coated with thick refractory mortar, ensuring no leakage and avoiding the use of sand. Before casting the brick layer, a layer of thick refractory mortar should be applied to the upper surface of the brick layer. After the entire kiln roof is formed, it should gradually rise according to the design requirements, with each rise not exceeding 2m. The elevation of the kiln roof should be synchronized with the masonry of the bottom bricks. The masonry of the kiln roof and bottom bricks should ensure the stability and horizontal consistency of the kiln structure.

Locking Bricks Skilled workers should be employed for locking brick installation, following the locking brick patterns on the design drawings and ensuring the firmness and density of the locking bricks. Gaps between bricks during construction should be uniformly consistent.

Brick Masonry Sequence

The sequence of brick masonry in the glass melting furnace should follow the design requirements, starting with the construction of columns and walls, followed by the melting pool and homogenizer, and finally the flue and kiln roof. During the construction of the melting pool, attention should be paid to ensuring uniform and consistent gaps in the pool bottom, walls, and roof, avoiding significant gaps. In the construction of walls and columns, focus should be on the smoothness of the wall structure and the verticality of the columns to ensure the quality of the masonry. During the construction of the kiln roof, it should gradually rise according to the requirements of the design drawings, ensuring the stability of the kiln structure.

Masonry Process

(1) Preparation: Arrange materials, tools, and personnel reasonably, assigning dedicated personnel for the task.

(2) Leveling: Determine the baseline and elevation for masonry, ensuring accuracy.

(3) Casting: Apply a waterproof casting layer on the kiln bottom, ensuring casting quality for the firmness and smoothness of the bottom.

(4) Brick Laying: Following the design drawings, construct columns, walls, melting pool, homogenizer, flue, and kiln roof, paying attention to the uniformity of gaps between bricks.

(5) Locking Bricks: Employ skilled workers for locking brick operations, ensuring the firmness and density of the masonry.

(6) Sintering: After completing the masonry, conduct sintering treatment to enhance the strength and refractory performance of the bricks.

(7) Inspection and Acceptance: Conduct quality inspection and acceptance of the masonry to ensure compliance with design requirements.

(8) Documentation: Maintain records of the masonry process, including leveling records, casting records, and brick-laying records.

Following the above process ensures the quality of the glass melting furnace masonry, guaranteeing the stability and refractory performance of the kiln structure. During construction, strict adherence to design requirements is crucial to ensuring each step meets standards, improving construction efficiency, and reducing the need for maintenance and repair work in the future.

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